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Ravi Zecharias on "The Existence of God" 

Dr. Criswell's famous message - >Part 1 (above) and Part 2 (below) - 31st December 1961 - The Scarlet thread through the scriptures

Dr. Criswells's message in Word Document

The Internet today is both a gold mine and a junkyard. It all depends on where you are looking and what you are looking for.

If you are looking for some place where you can get some golden nuggets of Biblical truths - you have come to the right place. All the material on this site is "Public Domain" stuff. Do feel free to listen to God's word on our Audio pages and feel free to go through the inexhaustible riches which have been handed down through the years from Godly saints. It is amazing how different people over the years have seen Him from different angles. For those who have never looked through a kaleidoscope, this can be quite an experience. ENJOY!! 

There is an abundance of choice spiritual materials on this site - all gathered over the years. Never before has mankind been able to indulge in such spiritual treasure.

'Google translate' (available top left corner) now makes this site available in 71 different languages. Habakkuk saw this day coming as he under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit wrote: "For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD as the waters cover the sea."  Habakkuk 2:14 (this has reference to the soon coming Millennial Kingdom)
How old is our blue planet?
There could have been a cataclysmic event to this planet as it became 'void' in Gen 1:2, most probably due to the heinous deception and betrayal of Lucifer. Hence this dear old blue planet could very well have gone through a mega makeover millions or even billions of years ago. However one fact is undeniable, homo sapiens (man) has not been around for too long. In modern times, the Darwinian 'theory' or rather the hoax of evolution is the greatest lie perpetuated by Lucifer and his clan and there is undeniable evidence of the concerted effort of so called 'scientists' who propagate that lie and try to weave that untruth into every fabric of our civilization. Only a fool can be bold enough to say in his heart that "there is no God" - Psalm 14:1. The first great fool to appear on this earth was Charles Darwin. It is amazing how many fools have followed in his footsteps simply because of their pride and arrogance. See some other fools presently walking on this planet - click here.
Getting to know the living God is a life long process. The Bible contains the description of various people who inhabited this planet and in one way or another left an indelible mark on our society. We too are part of that grand plan of God as we sojourn this planet. All of us has a chapter in this great book. Darwin has a chapter and it is indexed under 'The biggest fool who walked on this planet and made a monkey of himself in the process!'. Darwin had eyes but he simply could not see the grand creation of God.
You and I have chapters in this book. What does your chapter look like?
Here is an account of various people who walked on this planet. The Bible tells it like it is. Good people, bad people, mad people and sad people - it is all here for you to read and enjoy. Heb 12: 1 "Therefore, since we are surrounded by such a great cloud of witnesses, ... let us run with perseverance the race marked out for us." 

Before Time In the Beginning was the Word John 1
Before 4000 BC The Creation Genesis 1
Before 4000 BC The Garden of Eden Genesis 2
Before 4000 BC The Fall of Man Genesis 3
Before 3000 BC Cain kills Abel Genesis 4
Before 3000 BC From Adam to Noah Genesis 5
Before 3000 BC Wickedness Provokes God's wrath Genesis 6
Before 3000 BC The Great Flood Genesis 7
Before 3000 BC The Flood Subsides Genesis 8
Before 3000 BC Covenant of the Rainbow Genesis 9
Before 3000 BC Shem, Ham and Japheth Genesis 10
Before 2100 BC Job's Suffering and Faith Job 1 - 42
Before 2100 BC The Tower of Babel Genesis 11
2091 BC God Sends Abram to Egypt Genesis 12
2090 BC The Famine in Canaan Genesis 12:10
2085 BC Abram and Lot Part Ways Genesis 13
2085 BC Abram Promised Many Descendants Genesis 13:14
2084 BC Abram Rescues Lot Genesis 14
2081 BC God's Covenant with Abram Genesis 15
2081 BC Sarai and Hagar Genesis 16
2080 BC Ishmael Born Genesis 16:15
2067 BC The Covenant of Circumcision Genesis 17
2067 BC God Promises the Birth of Isaac Genesis 18
2067 BC The Destruction of Sodom Genesis 19
2067 BC Abraham, Sarah and Abimelech Genesis 20
2066 BC Isaac Born Genesis 21
2064 BC Hagar and Ishmael Sent Away Genesis 21:8
2057 BC The Treaty at Beersheba Genesis 21:22
2054 BC The Offering of Isaac Genesis 22
2030 BC Death and Burial of Sarah Genesis 23
2026 BC Isaac Marries Rebekah Genesis 24
2025 BC Birth of Jacob and Esau Genesis 25
1991 BC Death of Abraham Genesis 25:5
1978 BC Esau sells his birthright Genesis 25:29
1977 BC Isaac and Abimelech Genesis 26
1929 BC Jacob Gets Isaac's Blessing Genesis 27
1928 BC Jacob Flees to Laban Genesis 28
1928 BC Jacob's vision of a ladder Genesis 28:10
1928 BC Jacob Serves Laban Genesis 29
1921 BC Jacob Marries Rachel Genesis 29:28
1921 BC Jacob and His Sons Genesis 30
1916 BC Rachel Bears Joseph Genesis 30:22
1908 BC Jacob Leaves for Canaan Genesis 31
1906 BC Jacob Wrestles with God Genesis 32
1906 BC Jacob Meets Esau Genesis 33
1906 BC Jacob Settles in Shechem Genesis 33:18
1906 BC Shechem Defiles Dinah Genesis 34
1906 BC Jacob Returns to Bethel Genesis 35
1906 BC Jacob Named Israel Genesis 35:10
1906 BC Descendants of Esau Genesis 36
1903 BC Rachel Dies Genesis 35:18
1898 BC Joseph's Dreams and Betrayal Genesis 37
1898 BC Joseph Sold into Slavery Genesis 37:25
1898 BC Tamar deceives Judah Genesis 38
1898 BC Joseph Prospers Under Potiphar Genesis 39
1889 BC Potiphar's Wife Accuses Joseph Genesis 39:7
1889 BC Joseph Imprisoned Genesis 39:20
1887 BC The Cupbearer and the Baker's Dreams Genesis 40
1886 BC Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dreams Genesis 41
1886 BC Joseph Put in Charge Genesis 41:33
1886 BC Seven Years of Plenty Begin Genesis 41:47
1875 BC Famine Begins Genesis 41:53
1875 BC Joseph's Brothers Sent to Egypt Genesis 42
1875 BC Simeon Detained by Joseph Genesis 42:24
1875 BC The Return with Benjamin Genesis 43
1875 BC Benjamin and the Silver Cup Genesis 44
1875 BC Joseph Reveals His Identity Genesis 45
1875 BC Joseph Sends for Jacob Genesis 45:9
1875 BC Jacob and Family to Egypt Genesis 46
1875 BC Jacob to Goshen Genesis 47
1859 BC Jacob's Illness Genesis 48
1859 BC Jacob's Blessing and Death Genesis 49
1859 BC The Burial of Jacob Genesis 50
1806 BC The Death of Joseph Genesis 50:26
1800 BC Jacob's Family Stays in Egypt Exodus 1
1700 BC Israelites Multiply in Egypt Exodus 1:6
1600 BC Israelites Oppressed by New King Exodus 1:8
1539 BC Pharaoh's Order to Kill Firstborn Exodus 1:22
1525 BC The Birth and Adoption of Moses Exodus 2
1486 BC Moses Flees into Midian Exodus 2:11
1446 BC Israelites Groan in Slavery Exodus 2:23
1446 BC Moses Sent to Deliver Israel Exodus 3 - 6
1446 BC The Ten Plagues on Egypt Exodus 7 - 12
1446 BC The Exodus Begins Exodus 13 - 18
1446 BC The Isreaelites At Mount Sinai Exodus 19
1446 BC Moses Receives the Commandments Exodus 20
1446 BC Moses Receives the Law Exodus 21 - 24
1446 BC Preparations for the Tabernacle Exodus 25 - 31
1446 BC The Golden Calf and Moses' Anger Exodus 32
1446 BC The Journey Resumes Exodus 33 - 39
1445 BC The Tabernacle is Erected and Filled Exodus 40
1445 BC Laws for Sacrifices and Offerings Leviticus 1 - 7
1445 BC Aaron and His Sons Consecrated Leviticus 8, 9
1445 BC The Sin of Nadab and Abihu Leviticus 10
1445 BC Laws of Purity Leviticus 11 - 19
1445 BC Punishments and Regulations Leviticus 20 - 22
1445 BC Feasts and Jubilee Leviticus 23
1445 BC Census, Tribes, Duties Numbers 1 - 6
1445 BC Tabernacle Dedication Numbers 7 - 10
1445 BC The People Complain Numbers 11, 12
1445 BC The Twelve Spies Numbers 13
1445 BC People Murmur at the Spies' Report Numbers 14, 15
1426 BC Korah's Rebellion Numbers 16
1426 BC Aaron's Staff Buds Numbers 17
1426 BC Priests, Red Heifer, Cleansing Numbers 18, 19
1407 BC Water from the Rock at Meribah Numbers 20
1407 BC Aaron's Death Numbers 20:22
1407 BC The Bronze Snake Numbers 21
1407 BC Balaam and the Angel Numbers 22 - 25
1407 BC The Second Census Numbers 26
1407 BC The Daughters of Zelophehad Numbers 27
1407 BC Joshua Chosen to Succeed Moses Numbers 27:18
1407 BC Special sacrifices and holy days Numbers 28, 29
1407 BC Vows of women Numbers 30
1407 BC Conquest of Midian Numbers 31
1407 BC Division of Transjordan Numbers 32
1407 BC Summary of Israel's Journey Numbers 33
1407 BC Apportionment of Canaan Numbers 34
1407 BC Borders and Cities of Refuge Numbers 35
1407 BC Zelophehad's Daughters Marry Numbers 36
1407 BC Psalm of Moses Psalm 90
1407 BC Moses' Summary of Israel's History Deuteronomy 1 - 4
1406 BC Recapitulation of the Law Deuteronomy 4:44 - 31
1406 BC The Song of Moses Deuteronomy 32
1406 BC Moses Blesses the Twelve Tribes Deuteronomy 32:48
1406 BC Blessings of Moses Deuteronomy 33
1406 BC The Death of Moses Deuteronomy 34
1406 BC God Commissions Joshua Joshua 1
1406 BC Rahab Welcomes the Spies Joshua 2
1406 BC The Israelites Cross the Jordan Joshua 3 - 5
1406 BC Conquer of Jericho and Ai Joshua 6 - 8
1405 BC Kings Join against Israel Joshua 9
1405 BC The Sun Stands Still Joshua 10
1405 BC Northern Palestine Defeated Joshua 11, 12
1399 BC Land allotted among the Tribes Joshua 13 - 22
1375 BC Joshua's Farewell Address Joshua 23, 24
1375 BC Micah's Idolatry Judges 17
1375 BC Danites Settle in Laish, Take Micah's Idols Judges 18
1375 BC A Levite's Concubine Degraded Judges 19
1375 BC Israelites Defeat the Benjamites Judges 20
1375 BC Wives for the Benjamites Judges 21
1374 BC Israelites Capture Jerusalem, Hebron Judges 1
1374 BC Israel Rebuked and Defeated Judges 2
1374 BC Israel's idolatry and Servitude; Othniel Judges 3
1334 BC Eglon Judges 3:12
1316 BC Ehud Judges 3:15
1235 BC Deborah and Barak Judges 4
1235 BC The Song of Deborah and Barak Judges 5
1169 BC Gideon and the Midianites Judges 6 - 8
1140 BC Naomi, Ruth and Boaz Ruth 1 - 4
1129 BC Abimelech Conspires to Become King Judges 9
1126 BC Plot against Abimelech Judges 9:22
1126 BC Abimelech is Slain Judges 9:50
1118 BC Tola, Jair Judges 10
1100 BC Birth of Samuel 1 Samuel 1
1100 BC Hannah's Song 1 Samuel 2
1097 BC Jephthah's Covenant with the Gileadites Judges 11
1090 BC Jephthah, Ephraim, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon Judges 12
1090 BC Israel Oppressed by the Philistines Judges 13
1075 BC Samson's Marriage and Riddle Judges 14
1075 BC Samson Burns the Philistine Crops Judges 15
1075 BC Samson and Delilah Judges 16
1070 BC Battle of Shiloh 1 Samuel 3
1070 BC Philistines Take the Ark 1 Samuel 4, 5
1070 BC Philistines Return the Ark to Israel 1 Samuel 6
1070 BC Ark brought to Abinadab's House 1 Samuel 7
1050 BC Israelites Repent at Mizpeh 1 Samuel 7:3
1043 BC Saul Becomes King 1 Samuel 8 - 10
1042 BC Saul Defeats the Ammonites 1 Samuel 11, 12
1041 BC Saul's War with the Philistines 1 Samuel 13
1041 BC Jonathan's Miraculous Victory 1 Samuel 14
1028 BC Saul's Disobedience and Samuel's Rebuke 1 Samuel 15
1024 BC Samuel Anoints David at Bethlehem 1 Samuel 16
1024 BC David Kills Goliath 1 Samuel 17
1015 BC Jonathan's Friendship with David 1 Samuel 18
1014 BC David Protected from Saul 1 Samuel 19
1013 BC David and Jonathan's Covenant 1 Samuel 20
1013 BC David's Psalm of Deliverance (1Sa 20) Psalm 59
1012 BC David at Nob and Gath 1 Samuel 21
1012 BC David's Psalm Fleeing Saul (1Sa 21) Psalm 52
1012 BC David's Psalm Before Ahimelech (1Sa 21) Psalm 34
1011 BC David's Psalm at Gath (1Sa 21) Psalm 56
1011 BC Saul Slays the Priests of Nob 1 Samuel 22
1011 BC David's Psalms in the Cave (1Sa 22) Psalms 57, 142
1011 BC David Flees Saul 1 Samuel 23
1011 BC David's Psalm at Keilah (1Sa 23) Psalm 54
1011 BC David Spares Saul's Life 1 Samuel 24
1011 BC Samuel Dies 1 Samuel 25
1011 BC David Spares Saul a Second Time 1 Samuel 26
1010 BC David Flees to the Philistines 1 Samuel 27
1010 BC Saul and the Witch of Endor 1 Samuel 28
1010 BC Achish Sends David Away 1 Samuel 29
1010 BC David Destroys the Amalekites 1 Samuel 30
1010 BC Saul and His Sons Killed 1 Samuel 31
1010 BC David Mourns for Saul and Jonathan 2 Samuel 1
1010 BC David Made King over Judah 2 Samuel 2
1008 BC Civil War Between Abner and Joab 2 Samuel 2:12
1006 BC House of David Strengthened 2 Samuel 3
1005 BC Joab murders Abner 2 Samuel 3:22
1004 BC The Murder of Ish-bosheth 2 Samuel 4
1003 BC Genealogies of the Israelites 1 Chronicles 1 - 9
1003 BC Saul's Overthrow and Defeat 1 Chronicles 10
1003 BC David Reigns over All Israel 2 Samuel 5,
1 Chronicles 11
1002 BC David's Army Grows 1 Chronicles 12
1000 BC David fetches the ark 1 Chronicles 13
1000 BC David's Family Grows 1 Chronicles 14
1000 BC The Ark is Brought to Jerusalem 2 Samuel 6,
1 Chronicles 15
1000 BC David Plans a Temple 2 Samuel 7
998 BC David Defeats the Philistines 2 Samuel 8
998 BC David's Psalm of Victory (2Sa 8) Psalm 60
998 BC David's Psalm of Zion Psalm 15
998 BC David's Psalm of Glory to God Psalm 24
998 BC David's festival sacrifice 1 Chronicles 16
998 BC Psalms of Praise (1Ch 16) Psalms 96, 105, 106
997 BC David Purposes to build a Temple 1 Chronicles 17
996 BC David Strengthens His Kingdom 1 Chronicles 18
995 BC David and Mephibosheth 2 Samuel 9
995 BC David Defeats Ammon and Aram 2 Samuel 10,
1 Chronicles 19
995 BC The Capture of Rabbah 1 Chronicles 20
993 BC David and Bathsheba 2 Samuel 11
991 BC Nathan Rebukes David 2 Samuel 12
991 BC David's Psalm of Repentance (2Sa 12) Psalm 51
990 BC Solomon is Born 2 Samuel 12:24
990 BC Amnon and Tamar 2 Samuel 13
990 BC Amnom Killed by Absalom 2 Samuel 13:23
988 BC The Widow of Tekoa 2 Samuel 14
980 BC Absalom Recalled 2 Samuel 14:21
979 BC Psalms of David Psalms 2 - 145 (Assorted)
979 BC Psalms of Korah Psalms 42 - 44, 84, 85, 87, 88
979 BC Psalms of Asaph Psalm 50, 73, 75 - 78, 80 - 83, 89
979 BC Psalms of Unknown Authors Psalms 1 - 150 (Assorted)
979 BC David Forces a Census 1 Chronicles 21
979 BC Preparation for building the Temple 1 Chronicles 22
979 BC Preparation of Priesthood 1 Chronicles 23
979 BC Divisions of Levites 1 Chronicles 24
979 BC Preparation of sanctuary singers 1 Chronicles 25
979 BC Preparation of gatekeepers, treasurers 1 Chronicles 26
979 BC Preparation of government 1 Chronicles 27
976 BC Absalom's Conspiracy 2 Samuel 15
976 BC David Flees Jerusalem 2 Samuel 15:13
972 BC David and Ziba, Shimei 2 Samuel 16
972 BC Shimei Curses David 2 Samuel 16:5
972 BC David's Psalm of Thirst for God (2Sa 16) Psalm 63
972 BC Hushai's Warning Saves David 2 Samuel 17
972 BC David Psalms of Deliverance (2Sa 17) Psalms 41, 55
972 BC Absalom Slain by Joab 2 Samuel 18
972 BC Joab Comforts David 2 Samuel 19
972 BC Sheba Rebels Against David 2 Samuel 20
970 BC The Gibeonites Avenged 2 Samuel 21
970 BC David's Song of Deliverance 2 Samuel 22
970 BC David's Last Song 2 Samuel 23
970 BC David's Psalm of Steadfastness (2Sa 23) Psalm 108
970 BC David Counts the Fighting Men 2 Samuel 24
970 BC David's last days 1 Chronicles 28, 29,
1 Kings 1, 2
970 BC David's Psalm of Salvation (1Ki 2) Psalm 37
967 BC Psalm for Solomon (2Ch 1) Psalm 72
967 BC Solomon Asks for Wisdom 2 Chronicles 1,
1 Kings 3
967 BC Psalm of Korah (1Ki 3) Psalm 45
967 BC Solomon's Wisdom 1 Kings 4
967 BC Solomon's Preparations for the Temple 1 Kings 5
966 BC The Building of Solomon's Temple 1 Kings 6
966 BC The Building of Solomon's Palace 1 Kings 7
966 BC The Ark Brought to the Temple 1 Kings 8
966 BC God's covenant with Solomon 1 Kings 9
966 BC Solomon Prepares for a Temple and Palace 2 Chronicles 2
966 BC Solomon Builds the Temple in Jerusalem 2 Chronicles 3
966 BC Temple Furnishings 2 Chronicles 4
959 BC Ark Brought into the Temple 2 Chronicles 5
959 BC Solomon's Prayer of Temple Dedication 2 Chronicles 6
959 BC God's Glory in the Temple 2 Chronicles 7
959 BC Psalms of Solomon (2Ch 7) Psalms 135, 136
959 BC Solomon's buildings 2 Chronicles 8
950 BC Solomon Psalm of Blessing Psalm 127
950 BC The Proverbs of Solomon Proverbs 1 - 29
950 BC The Words of Agur Proverbs 30
950 BC King Lemuel's Proverb Proverbs 31
950 BC Ecclesiastes Words of the Preacher Ecclesiastes 1 - 12
950 BC Solomon's Song of Songs Songs 1 - 8
946 BC Mutual Presents of Solomon and Hiran 1 Kings 9:10
946 BC The Queen of Sheba Visits Solomon 1 Kings 10,
2 Chronicles 9
939 BC Solomon's Wives and Idolatry 1 Kings 11
931 BC Solomon's Death 1 Kings 11:40
931 BC The Kingdom is Divided 1 Kings 12, 13
930 BC Israelites Rebel against Rehoboam 2 Chronicles 10
930 BC Rehoboam's Reign over Judah 2 Chronicles 11
927 BC Rehoboam's sin 2 Chronicles 12
925 BC Ahijah's Prophecies against Jeroboam 1 Kings 14
913 BC Rehoboam's Wicked Reign 1 Kings 14:21
913 BC Abijam's wicked reign 1 Kings 15
913 BC Civil War against Jeroboam 2 Chronicles 13
913 BC Asa Destroys Idolatry 2 Chronicles 14
909 BC Jehu's prophecy against Baasha 1 Kings 16
895 BC Asa's Reforms 2 Chronicles 15
894 BC Hanani's rebuke 2 Chronicles 16
886 BC Elah, Zimri, Omri 1 Kings 16:5
874 BC Ahab's wicked reign 1 Kings 16:27
869 BC Jehoshaphat Succeeds Asa 2 Chronicles 17
863 BC Elijah Prays for Drought 1 Kings 17
863 BC Elijah Fed by Ravens 1 Kings 17:3
863 BC The Widow at Zarephath 1 Kings 17:7
863 BC Elijah on Mount Carmel 1 Kings 18
858 BC Elijah Flees Jezebel 1 Kings 19
858 BC Elisha Called 1 Kings 19:19
857 BC Ben-Hadad Attacks Samaria 1 Kings 20
857 BC Ahab Defeats Ben-Hadad 1 Kings 20:14
855 BC Ahab Takes Naboth's Vineyard 1 Kings 21
853 BC Israel and Judah against Syria 1 Kings 22
853 BC The Vision of Obadiah Obadiah 1
853 BC Jehoshaphat Allies with Ahab 2 Chronicles 18
853 BC Jehosaphat's deeds 2 Chronicles 19
853 BC War with Ammon and Moab 2 Chronicles 20
852 BC Jehoram's Wicked Reign in Judah 2 Chronicles 21
852 BC Moab Rebels 2 Kings 1
851 BC Elijah Taken up to Heaven 2 Kings 2
851 BC Elisha Succeeds Elijah 2 Kings 2:12
850 BC Jehoram Meets Moab Rebellion 2 Kings 3
849 BC The Widow's Oil 2 Kings 4
849 BC Elisha Raises The Shunammite boy 2 Kings 4:8
849 BC The Healing of Naaman 2 Kings 5
848 BC Elisha Floats an Axhead 2 Kings 6
848 BC Elisha Promises Plenty in Samaria 2 Kings 7
847 BC The Shunammite's Land 2 Kings 8
841 BC Jehu Reigns in Israel 2 Kings 9
841 BC Jehu Kills Joram 2 Kings 9:11
841 BC Ahab's Family Killed 2 Kings 10
841 BC Baal Worshipers killed 2 Kings 10:18
841 BC Joash escapes Athaliah 2 Kings 11
841 BC Ahaziah Succeeds Jehoram in Judah 2 Chronicles 22
841 BC Jehoiada Makes Joash King 2 Chronicles 23
835 BC Joash Reigns Well 2 Chronicles 24,
2 Kings 12
835 BC The Word of the LORD to Joel Joel 1 - 3
812 BC Joash Orders Temple repairs 2 Kings 12:6
812 BC Jehoahaz's wicked reign 2 Kings 13
796 BC Amaziah's good reign 2 Kings 14,
2 Chronicles 25
790 BC Azariah's good reign 2 Kings 15
790 BC Uzziah Reigns in Judah 2 Chronicles 26
766 BC The Words of Amos Amos 1 - 9
760 BC Jonah Sent to Nineveh Jonah 1 - 4
753 BC Hosea's Prophecies Hosea 1 - 14
750 BC Jotham Succeeds Uzziah 2 Chronicles 27
742 BC Wicked Reign of Ahaz 2 Chronicles 28,
2 Kings 16
739 BC Isaiah Complains of Zion's Corruption Isaiah 1 - 5
739 BC Isaiah's Vision and Commission Isaiah 6
735 BC Isaiah's Prophesy of Immanuel Isaiah 7
735 BC The Word of the LORD to Micah Micah 1 - 7
734 BC Uriah and Zechariah Isaiah 8
730 BC Isaiah Prophesies a Child Is Born Isaiah 9
730 BC Isaiah Prophesies Judgments Upon Israel Isaiah 9:8
730 BC Isaiah Prophesies Judgment on Assyria Isaiah 10
730 BC Isaiah Prophesies The Root of Jesse Isaiah 11
730 BC Isaiah's Joyful Thanksgiving Isaiah 12
725 BC Isaiah Prophesies against the Nations Isaiah 13 - 22
725 BC Isaiah's Valley of Vision Isaiah 22
725 BC Isaiah's Burden of Tyre Isaiah 23
725 BC Devastation on the Earth Isaiah 24
725 BC Isaiah's Songs of Praise Isaiah 25 - 27
725 BC Isaiah's Further Warnings Isaiah 28 - 32
725 BC Isaiah Prophesies a King Shall Reign Isaiah 32
725 BC Isaiah Declares God's Judgments Isaiah 33, 34
725 BC Isaiah Declares the Joyful Will Flourish in Zion Isaiah 35
725 BC Hoshea the Last King of Israel 2 Kings 17
722 BC Israel Led into Captivity 2 Kings 17:6
721 BC Strange Nations Transplanted into Samaria 2 Kings 17:24
716 BC Hezekiah's Good Reign 2 Chronicles 29
715 BC Hezekiah proclaims a solemn Passover 2 Chronicles 30
715 BC Idolatry is Destroyed 2 Chronicles 31
712 BC Hezekiah's Illness and Healing 2 Kings 20,
Isaiah 38
711 BC Hezekiah Shows Treasures 2 Kings 20:12,
Isaiah 39
711 BC Isaiah Prophesies Captivity and Restoration Isaiah 40 - 66
701 BC Sennacherib Threatens Jerusalem 2 Kings 18,
Isaiah 36,
2 Chronicles 32
701 BC Korah's Psalms of Refuge (2Ch 32) Psalms 46 - 48
701 BC Hezekiah's Prayer 2 Kings 19,
Isaiah 37
697 BC The Vision of Nahum Nahum 1 - 3
687 BC Manasseh's Wicked Reign 2 Kings 21,
2 Chronicles 33
640 BC Josiah's good reign 2 Kings 22,
2 Chronicles 34
638 BC The Word of the LORD to Zephaniah Zephaniah 1 - 3
627 BC The Call of Jeremiah Jeremiah 1
627 BC Jeremiah Declares Judah Forsakes God Jeremiah 2 - 6
627 BC Jeremiah's Message at the Temple Gate Jeremiah 7 - 10
625 BC The Oracle to Habakkuk Habakkuk 1 - 3
622 BC Jeremiah Proclaims God's Covenant Jeremiah 11, 12
621 BC Josiah Prepares for Temple Repair 2 Kings 22:3
621 BC Hilkiah finds the lost Book of the Law 2 Kings 22:8
621 BC Josiah Celebrates the Passover 2 Kings 23,
2 Chronicles 35
609 BC Jehoiakim's wicked reign. 2 Chronicles 36
609 BC Jeremiah Proclaims Covenant Is Broken Jeremiah 13 - 20
609 BC Jeremiah Prophesies against Egypt Jeremiah 46
609 BC Jeremiah Prophesies against Philistia Jeremiah 47
605 BC Daniel Refuses the King's Portion Daniel 1
604 BC Daniel Interprets Nebuchadnezzar Dream Daniel 2
601 BC Rebellion of Jehoiakim 2 Kings 24
597 BC Jehoiachim exiled 2 Kings 24:10
597 BC Zedekiah reigns in Judah 2 Kings 24:18
594 BC Jeremiah Prophesies against Moab Jeremiah 48
594 BC Jeremiah Prophesies against Ammon Jeremiah 49
593 BC Ezekiel's Prophecy at Chebar Ezekiel 1
593 BC Ezekiel's Calling and Instruction Ezekiel 2
593 BC Ezekiel Eats the Scroll Ezekiel 3
593 BC Ezekiel Foretells Siege of Jerusalem Ezekiel 4, 5
593 BC Ezekiel's Vision of the End Ezekiel 6, 7
592 BC Ezekiel's First Temple Vision Ezekiel 8 - 19
591 BC Ezekiel Sees God Refuse the Elders Ezekiel 20
591 BC Ezekiel Prophesies against Jerusalem Ezekiel 21, 22
591 BC Ezekiel Prophesies against two Sisters Ezekiel 23
588 BC Siege of Jerusalem Begins 2 Kings 25
588 BC Jeremiah's Conflicts Jeremiah 21 - 33
588 BC Jeremiah Prophesies Judgment on Judah Jeremiah 34 - 45
588 BC Siege of Jerusalem Begins Ezekiel 24
587 BC God's Vengeance on Ammon and Edom Ezekiel 25
586 BC The Fall of Jerusalem 2 Kings 25,
Jeremiah 52
586 BC Psalms of Desolation (Jer. 52) Psalms 74, 79
586 BC Jeremiah Prophesies against Babylon Jeremiah 50, 51
586 BC Jeremiah's Lamentations Lamentations 1 - 5
586 BC Ezekiel Pronounces Judgment on Tyre Ezekiel 26 - 28
586 BC Ezekiel Prophesies against Egypt Ezekiel 29 - 32
586 BC Ezekiel the Watchman Ezekiel 33
585 BC Ezekiel Explains Jerusalem's Fall Ezekiel 33:21
585 BC Ezekiel Foresees Reproof and Restoration Ezekiel 34 - 36
585 BC Ezekiel Sees Resurrection of Dry Bones Ezekiel 37
585 BC Ezekiel Sees Future battle Ezekiel 38
585 BC Ezekiel Sees God's judgment upon Gog Ezekiel 39
585 BC Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego Daniel 3
582 BC Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream Daniel 4
582 BC Daniel Interprets Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream Daniel 4:19
573 BC Ezekiel's Second Temple Vision Ezekiel 40 - 48
539 BC Daniel Interprets Handwriting on the Wall Daniel 5
539 BC Daniel Survives the Lions' Den Daniel 6
539 BC Daniel's Vision of Four Beasts Daniel 7
539 BC Daniel's Vision of the Ram and Goat Daniel 8
539 BC Daniel's Prayer and Gabriel's Answer Daniel 9
539 BC Daniel Comforted by the Angel Daniel 10
539 BC Daniel Prophesies Overthrow of Persia Daniel 11
539 BC Daniel Prophesies Deliverance for Israel Daniel 12
537 BC The Proclamation of Cyrus Ezra 1
537 BC The Exiles Return Ezra 2
535 BC Temple Work Begins Ezra 3
534 BC Adversaries Hinder Temple Work Ezra 4
534 BC Artaxerxes Orders Work Stopped Ezra 4:17
520 BC Tattenai's Letter to Darius Ezra 5
520 BC The Word of the LORD by Haggai Haggai 1, 2
520 BC The Word of the LORD to Zechariah Zechariah 1 - 14
520 BC Temple Work Resumed by Darius' Decree Ezra 6
515 BC Completion and Dedication of the Temple Ezra 6:16
483 BC Queen Vashti Deposed Esther 1
478 BC Esther Becomes Queen Esther 2
478 BC Mordecai Thwarts a Conspiracy Esther 2:21
474 BC Haman Seeks Revenge on the Jews Esther 3
473 BC Mordecai Informs Esther of Haman's Plot Esther 4
473 BC Esther Prepares a Banquet Esther 5
473 BC The King Honors Mordecai Esther 6
473 BC Haman Is Hanged Esther 7
473 BC Xerxes' Edict on Behalf of Esther and Jews Esther 8
472 BC Purim Instituted Esther 9
472 BC Xerxes' Tribute to Mordecai Esther 10
458 BC Ezra Journeys to Jerusalem Ezra 7
458 BC Ezra Commissioned by Artaxerxes Ezra 7:11
457 BC Families Return to Jerusalem with Ezra Ezra 8
457 BC Ezra's reforms Ezra 9
456 BC Ezra's Prayer About Intermarriage Ezra 10
445 BC Nehemiah's Prayer for the Exiles Nehemiah 1
444 BC Artaxerxes Sends Nehemiah to Jerusalem Nehemiah 2
444 BC Builders of the Walls Named Nehemiah 3
444 BC Builders Overcome Ridicule Nehemiah 4
444 BC Nehemiah Abolishes Debt and Bondage Nehemiah 5
444 BC Sanballat's Plot Nehemiah 6
444 BC Completion of the Wall Nehemiah 6:15
444 BC Census of Returned Exiles Nehemiah 7
444 BC Ezra Reads the Law Nehemiah 8
444 BC Israelites Fast and Repent Nehemiah 9
444 BC Israelites Seal the Covenant Nehemiah 10
444 BC People Settle in Jerusalem Nehemiah 11, 12
432 BC Nehemiah Restores Laws Nehemiah 13
430 BC The Word of the LORD by Malachi Malachi 1 - 4

Existing copies of ancient work. Notice the Bible is the most reliable ancient document in the world based on these criteria!





TIME SPAN in years from writing to oldest available copy



100-144 BC

900 AD



Plato (Tetralogies)

427-347 BC

900 AD



Tacitus (Annals)

100 AD

1100 AD



Tacitus (Minor works)

100 AD

1000 AD



Pliny the younger (History)

61-113 AD

850 AD



Thucydides (history)

460-400 BC

900 AD



Suetonius (De Vita Caesarum)

75-160 AD

950 AD



Herodotus (history)

480-425 BC

900 AD




496-406 BC

1000 AD




54 BC

1550 AD




480=406 BC

1100 AD




383-322 BC

1100 AD




384-322 BC

1100 AD




450-385 BC

900 AD



Homer (Iliad)

900 BC

400 BC



New Testament

40-100 AD

125 AD



THE OLD TESTAMENT: There are 39 books in the Old Testament, generally separated into 4 divisions:

The Pentateuch, traditionally designated as the 5 books of Moses.
Historical Books, number 12, from Joshua to Esther.
Poetical Books, number 5, from Job to Song of Solomon.
Prophetical Books, including the writings of the 5 Major Prophets, from Isaiah to Daniel, and the 12 Minor Prophets from Hosea to Malachi.

THE NEW TESTAMENT: There are 27 books in the New Testament, generally separated into 4 divisions:
The Gospels
Historical Books
Doctrinal Books
Prophetical Book


The word "genesis" signifies "generation" or "origin" and comes from the Greek translation of Genesis 2:4. It is an appropriate title for the first book of the Bible, which contains the record of the origin of the universe, the human race, family life, nations, sin redemption, etc. The first 11 chapters, which deal with primeval or pre-Patriarchal times, present the antecedents of Hebrew history from Adam to Abraham. The remaining chapters (12 - 50) are concerned with God’s dealings with the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and Jacob’s son Joseph, all "fathers" of the people whom God has chosen to carry out His plan for the redemption of mankind. The book closes with these "Chosen People" in Egypt.

The name means "going out" or departure". While it refers to one of the most important events of the book, the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, other highly significant events are also found here, such as the oppression of the Chosen People in Egypt, the flight and call of Moses, and God’s covenant with the nation Israel at Sinai - an experience climaxed by His giving of the moral law (Ten Commandments) through Moses to the people. A code of secular laws is also included, and the latter part of the book contains an elaborate description of the sacred Ark of the Covenant and its ten (tabernacle), God’s place of dwelling among His people.

This book was so named because it treats of laws of service and worship of special importance to the Tribe of Levi. It has been aptly called "the Handbook of the Priests". Many basic precepts of the New Testament are foreshadowed in this book, such as the seriousness of sin in God’s sight, the necessity of atonement for sin, the holiness of God, and the necessity of a mediator between God and man.

The name of this book originated from the two numberings of the people related in it: the first at Sinai in the second year of the Exodus and another on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho in the 40th year. A better title is the one give by the Hebrew themselves, Bemidhbar ( "In the Wilderness"), for it describes the locale of the major events of the book. In all these events, the writer sees the guiding hand of God, sustaining, delivering, and keeping covenant with His people, as He prepares them for entrance into the land promised first to Abraham (Gen. 12:1ff).

The final book of the Pentateuch derives its English name from the Greek work deuteronomion, meaning the "second law", or the "law repeated". Deuteronomy is essentially Moses’ farewell address(es) to a new generation in which he summons them to hear the law of God, to be instructed in the application of its principles to the new circumstances awaiting them, and to renew intelligently the covenant God had made with their fathers - a covenant that must be faithfully observed as the condition of God’s blessings upon them in the Promised Land.


This book serves as the connecting link between the Pentateuch and the later historical books; it name is derived from the principal character, Joshua. Chapters 1 to 23 describe the conquest of the land and it division among the tribes of Israel. In the final chapters (23-24), Joshua, somewhat after the fashion of Moses, exhorts the people in a series of farewell addresses "to keep and to do all that is written in the book of the law of Moses," and solemnly challenges them to the renewal of their covenant commitment to God.

Named after the "Judges of Israel," the heroic leaders whose deeds it records, this book covers a period of time from the death of Joshua to the birth of Samuel, an era often called "the dark ages" of Hebrew history. Here is a story, on the human side, of disobedience and disaster, and on the divine side, of direction and deliverance. Of the 13 judges named, only 3 are well known: Deborah, Gideon, and Samson.

The Book of Ruth offers a striking contrast to the Book of Judges, but its story is associated with the same period. In Judges, national sin and corruption portray a dark picture. The story of Ruth the Moabitess and her loyalty and devotion to Naomi, her Hebrew mother-in-law, presents the reader with a picture of the nobler side of Hebrew life in the days of the judges.

These books were named after Samuel, not only because he is the principal figure in the first part, but also because he anointed the two other principal characters, Saul and David. Originally a single book which was divided when translated into Greek, the books of Samuel cover a period of time in Israel’s history from the birth of Samuel to the close of the reign of David. First Samuel presents the transition from Israel’s judges to the monarchy. Second Samuel deals almost exclusively with the history of David and presents a vivid picture of the theocratic monarchy in which the king represents God’s rule over the people.

These books are the sequel to I and II Samuel and should be read as a continuation of the history of the Hebrew nation contained in the former work. Originally one book, I and II kings relate the history of Israel form the last days of David to the destruction of the northern kingdom, Israel, in 721 B.C., and to the fall of the southern kingdom, Judah, in 586 B.C. This is the period of Israel’s glory, division, decline, and fall.

In the Hebrew Canon these books formed a single volume called "Things of the days" (i.e., annals). The translators of the Greek Septuagint Version gave them the title, Paraleipomena, meaning "things left over", implying their use as a supplement to Samuel and Kings. Jerome (c. A.D. 340-420) called them "a chronicle of the whole and sacred history" from Adam to Cyrus (538 B.C.), hence their English name. Actually, Chronicles is a summary of Hebrew history that duplicates much of Samuel and Kings.

Written originally as one book, these two books describe the return of the Jewish exiles after more than a half-century of bondage in Babylon, and the subsequent restoration of Jerusalem, its Temple and it walls. Ezra and Nehemiah are of special importance, since they contain nearly all of the direct information known of the post-Exilic period of Hebrew history.

The Book of Esther, in the form of a short story similar to the Book of Ruth, has its setting in the palace of Shushan, or Susa, one of the three capitals of the Persian Empire. The story gives us a vivid picture of the Jews in exile, of the hostility of their non-Jewish enemies in Persia, and of how Esther became the queen of Ahasuerus (Xerxes), subsequently risking her life in order to save her people, the Jews, from total destruction. God’s providential care of His people is magnified throughout, though the word "God" never appears in the book.


So named from Job, its chief character, the book deals with an ageless question, one that is puzzling to every generation - the problem of human suffering, particularly the affliction of the righteous. The reader is given an account of the sufferings of the pious Patriarch Job, of the argument carried on between Job and his friends as to the cause of his sufferings, and finally, of the solution to his difficulty,. The book’s principal aim is to refute the popular view that all suffering is the result of sin in the life of the sufferer.

A collection of 150 psalms, who Hebrew name is "The Book of Praise". Authors of individual psalms include David, Solomon, Moses, Asaph, and others who are anonymous. The variety and unity of Psalms have given this book a unique place in the devotional life of the individual and the Church. Almost every aspect of man’s relation to God is depicted in these poems: simple trust, the sense of sin, appeals to a higher power in time of trouble, and the conviction that the world is in the hands of a loving God.

This book is a compendium of proverb collections. Although Solomon inspired the development of the book, its entire content did not derive from him. A proverb is a short, pithy saying with practical implications. The ones included here cover a variety of subjects, for example, chastity, control of the tongue, laziness, knowledge, relations with others, justice. Perhaps above everything else in Proverbs there is the reiterated assertion that the source of true wisdom is "the fear of the Lord".

In English, the title means "Preacher". Traditionally held to have been written by Solomon, this book is now almost universally recognized as about him rather than by him. The author’s purpose is to prove the vanity of everything " under the sun". This truth is first announced a fact, then proved from the "Preacher’s" experience and observations. Finally, the author shows that the fullness of life is found only in the recognition of things " above the sun", things spiritual as well as material.

This book, the only one in the Bible that has love for its sole theme, is a collection or cycle of marriage songs. Again, as with Ecclesiastes, the composition is about Solomon, and not by him. The Song is didactic and moral in its purpose, and has traditionally been interpreted as showing God’s love for His Chosen People and Christ’s love for His Bride, the Church.


This book, as is true of all the prophetical books, derives its name from the prophet whose messages it records. The unity of Isaiah, a problem related to authorship and contents, has been the subject of much debate. The message of the book is twofold: judgment upon Judah for her sins (1-39), and comfort and hope for an exiled people (40-66). In these messages of encouragement are found some of the most graphic portrayals of the Messiah in the Old Testament.

Jeremiah was God’s spokesman during the decline and fall of the southern kingdom, Judah. Among the Prophets not one had a more difficult task than that of standing alone for God in the midst of the apostasy of his own people, and not one who bares his soul to his reader as does Jeremiah. Although Jeremiah announced the coming destruction of Judah, he looked beyond this judgement to a day when religion, no longer national, would be individual and spiritual. This new kind of religion would result from God’s "new covenant" with His people.

Entitled in most English versions The Lamentations of Jeremiah, this book is placed immediately after Jeremiah in the Septuagint, Vulgate and English Bible. In the Hebrew text it is found among the "Writings". In spite of the ancient tradition that Jeremiah was the author, present scholarship is reluctant to accept this view. The book is composed of five poems, lamenting the siege and destruction of Jerusalem (586 B.C.). The poet also makes sincere confession of sin on behalf of the people and leaders, acknowledges complete submission to the will of God, and finally prays that God will once again smile upon His people and restore them to their homeland.

Ezekiel was carried into exile in Babylon, where he received his call and exercised his prophetic ministry. His dual role of prophet-priest and his position as "watchman" over his people make Ezekiel unique among the prophets and may account for the uniqueness of his message and his methods of delivery. The book contains 48 chapters, divided at the halfway point by the fall of Jerusalem. Ezekiel’s prophecies before this event are chiefly messages of condemnation upon Judah for her sin; following the city’s fall, the prophet speaks to helpless people of the hope and certainty of restoration to their homeland and of worship again in the Temple.

Traditionally considered as the work of the Prophet Daniel in exile in Babylon during the 6th century B.C., many modern scholars classify the book as an "apocalypse" that was the product of a pious Jew living under the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.). In a series of events and visions, the author presents a view of history in which God rules and prevails over men and nations to achieve ultimate victory for the "saints" of God.


Sometimes called the "Prophet of Divine Love," Hosea was a native of Israel and was called to be God’s spokesman during that kingdom’s darkest hour. The apostasy of his own people was enough to break Hosea’s heart, but he also bore a heavy cross in his own life - his wife had proved unfaithful. In this bitter experience Hosea came to fathom God’s love for his erring children and pleads with his people to repent and avail themselves of God’s divine compassion and a love that will not let Israel go.

Traditionally called the "Prophet of Pentecost," since his prophecy of the outpouring of the Spirit (2:28ff.) is quoted by Peter (Acts 2:16) as being fulfilled at Pentecost, Joel was the kind of man who could see the eternal in the temporal. The occasion of his message was a devastating locust plague, which he interpreted as foreboding the Day of the Lord when God would act directly to punish His people for their sins. Joel calls upon the people of Judah to repent, promising that repentance will bring God’s blessings, material and spiritual.

Among the "writing" prophets Amos was the first of a new school, for, like Elijah and John the Baptist, he denounced sin with rustic boldness. A shepherd and native of Judah, he was called by God to prophesy to the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Jeroboam II (786-746 B.C.). Sparing no one, the prophet fearlessly announced the impending judgment of God. Although the dominant note of the book is judgment, the final words promise the restoration of a righteous remnant.

This shortest of the prophetic books, containing only 21 verses, is a scathing denunciation of the Edomites, descendants of Esau, who from the beginning had been hostile to Israel. Its message is primarily one of destruction and doom for Edom. The latter part of the prophecy is concerned with the Day of the Lord when God’s judgment will be upon other nations as well as Edom and concludes with the promise that "the kingdom shall be the Lord’s".

The Old Testament counterpart of John 3:16, this book declares the universality of God’s love embracing even pagan nations. Its authorship and historicity are disputed. If one is willing to accept the miraculous, there is no compelling reason to deny its historicity. There is a strong possibility that the book is about Jonah and not by him. The author relates how Jonah refused God’s call to preach to the people of Nineveh, his punishment for this disobedience, his ready response to a second summons, and his bitter complaint at God’s sparing the city following her repentance. Christ Himself alludes to Jonah when speaking of His own death and Resurrection (Matt. 12:39, 16:4; Luke 11:29-32).

The Prophet Micah was a younger contemporary of Isaiah and spoke at a time when conditions in Judah paralleled those in the northern kingdom of Israel during Amos’ day. Micah’s messages are strikingly similar to those of Amos: many of the same sins are denounced and the same rugged, direct, indignant, and convincing language is used. While announcing God’s certain judgment upon sin, he also spoke of a sure deliverance to come through the Messiah whose place of birth he predicts.

This book is a vivid prediction of the approaching downfall of Nineveh, the capital city of Assyria, one of the most warlike of the ancient heathen nations. Of the Prophet Nahum, whose name means "consolation" or "comfort", little is known. His purpose was to comfort his people, long harassed by Assyria, with the promise that this cruel and oppressing people would soon meet destruction at God’s hand.

While this book is true prophecy, its method is quite different from other writings of the prophets. Dramatically constructed in the form of dialogue, this book contains the prophet’s complaints (questions) and God’s reply to them. In god’s answers Habakkuk discovers the doorway leading from questioning to affirmation, through which he enters into a faith that enables him to affirm, "I will rejoice in the Lord… God, the Lord, is my strength."

This book, though brief, is comprehensive, embracing the two great themes of prophetic teaching: judgment and salvation - both extending to all nations. In some great catastrophe of his day, perhaps the Scythian invasion (c. 626 B.C.), Zephaniah sees God’s terrible judgment upon the nations, including Judah. He exhorts the people to repent and assures them that God will dwell in the midst of a righteous remnant following repentance.

This book, the first among the writings of the post-Exilic prophets, consists of four prophecies delivered within the space of 4 months, some 15 years after the return of the first exiles to Jerusalem. Work on the second Temple has begun shortly after the exiles’ arrival, but had been delayed for almost two decades. Haggai comes forward with a series of timely and vigorous messages challenging the people to respond wholeheartedly to a noble task - rebuilding the House of God.

Sometimes called the "Apocalypse of the Old Testament", this book contains the messages of the Prophet Zechariah, a contemporary of Haggai. The main division of the book (1-8, 9-14) are noticeably dissimilar in both style and subject matter, a fact that has led some to assign the last division (9-14) to another author. The first eight chapters are primarily concerned with the rebuilding of the Temple, although the language used is highly symbolical. Chapters 9 to 14 deal with "last things", the "end time". Many Messianic references are found, and the writer foresees the Day of the Lord when Israel will be restored, the nations judged, and God’s kingdom triumphant.

The name of the last book of the Old Testament and of the Prophet whose oracles it contains. Malachi ( from Hebrew meaning "my messenger") is an invaluable source concerning the Judaean Jews during the Persian period. Two themes are predomination: the sin and apostasy of Israel (1-2); and the coming judgment upon the faithless, with blessings promised for those who repent (3-4). The growing Messianic expectation in the Old Testament is apparent in Malachi by the announcement of God’s "messenger of the covenant", by whose coming Israel will be purified and judged; and of the return of the Prophet Elijah who will proclaim the Day of the Lord.



From at least the 2nd century A.D., the Gospel of Matthew has been ascribed to Matthew the publican, tax collector, and disciple. It is the most complete account of Jesus’ teachings and was written to convince the writer’s Jewish audience that Jesus was the Messiah descended from David, the One promised by the Old Testament Prophets. It is peculiarly the Gospel for Israel. The most significant teaching passages are the Sermon on the Mount (5-7) and the parable sections (especially Chapter 13).

The Gospel of Mark, the shortest, is also held by most to be the first of the Gospels to be written. A tradition dating from the 2nd century ascribes this book to John Mark, a companion of Peter and also of Paul and Barnabas in their missionary endeavors. The preaching of Peter may well have been the source of most of Mark’s material. Mark accounts for the ministry of Jesus from His Baptism to His Ascension. Most commentaries agree that Mark’s purpose was neither biographical nor historical, but theological: to present Jesus as the Christ, the mighty worker rather than great teacher. Hence, Mark makes fewer references to the Parables and discourses, but meticulously records each of Jesus’ "mighty works" as evidence of His divine power. Mark contains 20 specific miracles and alludes to others. Bible scholars quite generally agree that Mark wrote his Gospel in Rome for the gentiles.

There is almost universal agreement that Luke, the "beloved physician" (Col. 4:14) who accompanied Paul on his missionary travels, was the author of the third Gospel. Luke wrote to present Jesus as the Universal Savior, the compassionate healer and teacher. His careful historical approach is revealed in the preface, which states that the author has traced "all things from the very first". Unlike Mark, this author includes an account of the Virgin Birth, and unlike Matthew he extensively describes the Perean Ministry (Chapters 9-18).

The Gospel of John endeavors to explain the mystery of the Person of Christ by the use of the term "logos" (word) and was written to confirm Christians in the belief that Jesus was the Christ, the Son of God. Its purpose is evangelical and is so stated in 20:31. John not only records events as do the other Gospels but also uniquely interprets the events by giving them spiritual meaning. The author makes significant use of such words as light, water, life, love, and bread. Traditionally the author of this Gospel is considered to have been John, the Beloved Disciple.


Addressed to a certain Theophilus, about whom nothing is known (1:1), the Book of Acts records the early history of the Apostolic Church. Beginning with the Ascension of Jesus to heaven, it traces the growth of Christianity in Palestine and its spread to Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and eventually to Rome. The leading figure in the first chapters is Peter, who delivered the stirring sermon on the day of Pentecost (2). The greater part of the book, however, is devoted to the experiences of Paul and his companions during their missionary endeavors. The Book of Acts provides a useful background for study of the Pauline Epistles. The introduction (1:1) attests to a Lukan authorship.


Pauline Epistles

This letter, the first in canonical order, but not the first of Paul’s Epistles, is the longest and the most influential of all the Apostle’s writings. Writing to Christians at Rome whom he hoped soon to visit, Paul presents to them his mature convictions concerning the Christian faith: the universality of sin; the impotence of the law as a means of salvation; the nature of God’s saving act in Christ, and its appropriation by faith. The letter closes with spiritual advice and some personal remarks.

This letter discusses doctrinal and ethical problems that were disturbing the Corinthian church, and presents a picture of the life of a particular local congregation in New Testament times. Writing from Ephesus, where he spent at lead three year, Paul addresses the Corinthian church concerning the significance of the new life in Christ, which should be demonstrated in the fellowship within the Church. He advises them regarding spiritual gifts (12), Christian love (13), and the meaning of the Resurrection (15).

Often called "the hard letter", this is an intensely personal letter. It recounts the difficulties and hardships Paul has endured in the service of Christ (10-13). The Apostle regards the Corinthians as his children in Christ.

Paul’s letter addressed to the churches in Galatia is the great letter on Christian freedom; in it Paul attacks the Christians who wished to exalt the law. Galatians’ emphasis is similar to the theme of Paul’s letter to the Romans. The doctrinal section, as is typical of the Pauline format, is followed by an intensely practical section in Chapters five and six.

The Ephesian letter is one of Paul’s four "Imprisonment Letters" - Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon being the others. Although addressed to the church in Ephesus, this letter is generally believed to have been a circular discussing the believers’ exalted position through Christ, the Church as the body of Christ, her relationship to God, and practical implications of the Gospel.

In this letter, which is a message of joy, Paul expresses his gratitude for the Philippians’ love and material assistance. The Epistle is uniquely significant because of its presentation of the humility of Jesus. Its practicality is also observed in Paul’s advice to Euodia and Syntyche.

The Colossian letter is well known for its doctrine as well as for its brevity. In the letter, Paul insists upon the Lordship of Christ. Colossians has come under recent scrutiny because of its references, implied or actual, to incipient Gnosticism, a growing heresy in the Church.

These letters constitute what is probably the earliest writing of the Apostle Paul. There were written in A.D. 51-52, soon after the founding of the Thessalonian church, and give Paul’s answer, to some basic problems disturbing the Christians of Thessalonica. The major contributions are eschatological, investigating especially the events preceding and accompanying the return of Christ. The concern of Paul for his followers is apparent throughout.

Along with the letter to Titus, these writings are defined as "pastoral epistles", which approach the material from the perspective of the minister, not of the Church. The letters to Timothy discuss such matters as the duties and qualifications of church officers, the inspirations of Scripture, the treatment of widows, and the expectation of a future reward.

This is a personal letter written by the Apostle Paul to a young minister whom he had left on Crete. Like the Timothy correspondence, the letter to Titus is practical and discusses the everyday problems confronted by a young minister. This letter is probably to be dated between the first and the second letters to Timothy.

This shortest of all Paul’s letters was addressed to Philemon (although two other persons are included in the salutation). Paul entreats Philemon, the master of Onesimus, a runaway slave, to receive him back as a brother in Christ (16, 17). This very personal letter reveals not only the concern of the Apostle for a converted slave but also a practical demonstration of brotherhood in Christ, "where there is neither bond (slave) nor free". (Gal 3:28)

Although tradition ascribed Hebrews to Paul, it is now generally believed to have been written by someone other than the Apostle, but certainly someone who was acquainted with Paul’s teaching. The Epistle portrays Jesus, who performed the perfect sacrifice for the sins of the world, as the great High Priest of the line of Melchizedek (Gen. 14). The Bible’s only definition of faith occurs in this Epistle (Chap. 11) and is followed by the "great line of splendor" of the men of faith.
General Epistles

The author of this letter introduces himself as "James, a servant of God and the Lord Jesus Christ". Four men in the New Testament bore this name but the writer of this Epistle is usually identified with James who was the leader of the church in Jerusalem. The letter is addressed to the "the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad", and is the most Jewish in style and form of any of the New Testament books. It is not a treatise on Christian theology but rather a practical letter dealing with Christian ethics. James insists that works, not words, are the mark of a disciple.

The author describes himself as "Peter an apostle of Jesus Christ", and there is no overriding reason to doubt the truth of his claim, although the beautiful Greek style employed has led some scholars to believe that the actual writing may have been done by an associate (probably a secretary). The contents breathe the spirit of Peter. His speeches recorded in Acts indicate a similar attitude toward persecution and suffering. The letter here reflects a time of suffering and trial. No doubt the widespread persecution of the Christians by the Roman authorities was the occasion of the "fiery trial" (4:12). The writer admonishes his readers to a life of purity, of godly living, and exhorts them to steadfastness and faithfulness.

This letter was a "reminder" to the readers of the truth of the Gospel, which they had received as against the attacks of false teachers who would pervert it. The author urges his hearers to remain steadfast even amidst persecution and reminds them that the Lord will keep His promises. He speaks of the "day of the Lord" (parousia) and of the necessity of keeping themselves "without spot and blameless" (3:14)

Three Johannine Epistles - I, II and III John - are included in the New Testament collection. These Epistles should probably be dated A.D. 90-95. John, the author of the Fourth Gospel, addresses the first one to an unidentified group. I John 5:13 indicates that the author writes in order that this group might know the certainty of eternal life. II John is addressed to an elect lady, either a church or perhaps a woman. III John is addressed to Gaius, a man commended for his hospitality.

The author of this short letter warns his readers against the dangers of apostasy, and points to the faithlessness of the Israelites as a reminder of God’s judgment. Surrounded as his readers were by moral corruption and apostacizing influences, the author urges them to "contend for the faith" (3), and in a closing benediction he commends them to the One "who is able to keep you from falling" (24). Both the similarity of this letter to II Peter and Jude’s use of non-Biblical sources (9,14,15) have been the subject of much discussion.


This last book of the Bible identifies itself as "the revelation of Jesus Christ", and its author is designated "his servant John" who was exiled to the Greek island of Patmos because of his faith. Traditionally, John is identified with the author of the Fourth Gospel. Addressed to seven historical churches in Asia Minor, the Book of Revelation was written to warn against spiritual indifference and to elicit courage under persecution. Because of the extensive use of symbolism and picturesque imagery, its interpretation has posed many problem for the student of the Bible. While recognizing the historical situation (Roman persecution) that elicited this writing, many interpreters look upon it as a prophecy depicting events that were to take place at the end of the age. The ultimate victory of Christ is the dominant theme of this book.

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